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9-V Battery Replacement

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This circuit was originally designed to power a motorcycle intercom from the vehicle supply system. This type of intercom, which is used for communication between driver and passenger, generally requires quite a bit of power. In order to improve intelligibility there is often elaborate filtering and a compander is sometimes used as well. The disadvantage is that a battery doesn’t last very long. You could use rechargeable batteries, of course, but that is often rather laborious. It seems much more obvious to use the motorcycle power supply instead.

9-V Battery Replacement Circuit Diagram

Power-Supply-Circuit-Diagram

A 9-V converter for such an application has to meet a few special requirements. For one, it has to prevent interference from, for example, the ignition system reaching the attached circuit. It is also preferable that the entire circuit fits in the 9-V battery compartment. This circuit meets these requirements quite successfully and the design has nonetheless remained fairly simple. In the schematic we can recognise a filter, followed by a voltage regulator and a voltage indicator. D1, which protects the circuit against reverse polarity, is followed by an LC and an RC filter (C3/L1/L2/C1/R1/C2). This filter excludes various disturbances from the motorcycle power system. Moreover, the design with the 78L08 and D3 ensures that the voltage regulator is operating in the linear region. The nominal sys-tem voltage of 14 V can some-times sag to about 12 V when heavy loads such as the lights are switched on.

Although the circuit is obviously suitable for all kinds of applications, we would like to mention that it has been extensively tested on a Yamaha TRX850. These tests show that the converter functions very well and that the interference suppression is excellent.

Author : Lex de Hoo - Copyright: Elektor

Rev Counter for Mopeds

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Older mopeds are not usually fitted with a rev counter, which is a bit of a shortcoming. The making or finding of a suitable indicator instrument or display is often the greatest obstacle for the hobbyist. The author of this circuit has devised a practical solution to this problem in the shape of a (cheap) bicycle computer. Such bicycle computer is easily attached to the handle-bars and it usually has a large and very readable display.

The moped engine’s generator is used to detect the rev speed. The generator is connected directly to the engine drive shaft and generates an AC voltage for the on-board electrical system. The frequency of this voltage corresponds with the rev speed of the engine. This frequency, however, is too high to be used directly by the bicycle computer. The solution for this is to divide the frequency of the signal by 16, using a binary counter of the type 7493, before connecting it to the cycle computer.

 

Rev Counter for Mopeds Schematic

Hobby-and-Modelling

The generator signal is first rectified by D1, R1 and D2 and then limited to 2.5 V. Transistor T1 turns it into a usable logic signal. Counter IC1 contains four flip-flips, one after the other, which divides the signal by 16. This signal drives, via T2, the white LED D3. LDR R6 reacts to the blinking LED and is connected to the cycle computer in place of the supplied wheel sensor.  The generator signal also sup-plies the power for the circuit. D4/C1 provide rectification and filtering, after which the voltage is regulated to 5 V byT3 and D4.

For a correct read-out (calibrated rev counter), the bicycle computer needs to be adjusted for a wheel circumference of 889 mm or 89 cm (wheel diameter 28 inch).  Make sure that when building the circuit it is suitably protected against vibration and moisture. Mount the LED and LDR directly opposite each other and keep in mind that they need to be well shielded from ambient light.

LM1812 Ultrasonic-Transceiver

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The LM1812 is a complete ultrasonic transceiver on a chip designed for use in a variety of pulse-echo ranging applications. The chip operates by transmitting a burst of oscillations with a transducer, then using the same transducer to listen for a return echo. Ifan echo of sufficient amplitude is received, the LM1812 detector puts out a pulse of approximately the same width as the original burst. The closer the reflecting object, the earlier the return echo.

Ultrasonic-Transceiver Circuit Diagram

Ultrasonic-Transceiver-Circuit-Diagram

Echos could be received immediately after the initial burst was transmitted, except for the fact that the transducer rings. When transmitting, the transducer is excited with several hundred volts peak to peak, and it operates in a loudspeaker mode. Then, when the LM1812 stops transmitting and begins to receive, the transducer continues to vibrate or ring, even though excitation has stopped. The transducer acts as a microphone and produces an ac signal initially the same amplitude as the transmit pulse. This signal dies away as is governed by the transducer"s damping factor, but as long as detectable ringing remains, the LM1812"s detector will be held on, masking any return echos.

50W Hi-Fi amplifier with TDA7294

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The TDA7294 is a Hi-Fi amplifier and can give 100W RMS but with 10% distortion. Supplying 30 Volts you can have 50 Watts RMS with 1% distortion. Frequency range start at 16Hz and can reach 100KHz. Make sure you are using good heatsink. The chip supports mute function as well.

50W Hi-Fi amplifier Circuit Diagram

Audio-Circuit-Schematic-Diagram

A symmetrical 30V power supply is all its need to power the unit. 

Schematic 22 Watt Audio Amplifier

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The 22 watt amp is easy to build, and very inexpensive. The circuit can be used as a booster in a car audio system, an amp for satellite speakers in a surround sound or home theater system, or as an amp for computer speakers. The circuit is quite compact and uses only about 60 watts. The circuit is not mine, it came from Popular Electronics.

22 Watt Audio Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Audio-Circuit-Diagram

Parts :

R1 39K 1/4 Watt Resistor
C1,C2 10uf 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C3 100uf 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C4 47uf 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C5 0.1uf 25V Ceramic Capacitor
C6 2200uf 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
U1 TDA1554 Two Channel Audio Amp Chip
MISC Heatsink For U1, Binding Posts (For Output), RCA Jacks (For Input), Wire, Board

Notes:

  • The circuit works best with 4 ohm speakers, but 8 ohm units will do.
  • The circuit dissipates roughly 28 watts of heat, so a good heatsink is necessary. The chip should run cool enough to touch with the proper heatsink installed.
  • The circuit operates at 12 Volts at about 5 Amps at full volume. Lower volumes use less current, and therefore produce less heat.
  • Printed circuit board is preferred, but universal solder or perf board will do. Keep lead length short.